Model Rules on Online Platforms

The digital economy is increasingly shaped by online platforms serving as marketplaces where customers can buy goods or book services (eg Airbnb, Uber, Amazon). Their dynamics can be difficult to reconcile with the currently existing regulatory framework at EU level.

For an overview of past and upcoming meetings of this project, please click here.

ELI Members who are interested in actively contributing to the development of this project are invited to join the Members Consultative Committee (MCC). Kindly contact the ELI Secretariat if you would like to join the MCC of this project or if you have any questions concerning the project.

Quick Facts

Project Type: Model Rules
Procedure: Regular
Adopted: CD 2016/6 (on Projects)
Project Period: January 2017
December 2019

Background

The digital economy is increasingly shaped by online platforms serving as marketplaces where customers can buy goods or book services (eg Airbnb, Uber, Amazon). Their dynamics can be difficult to reconcile with the currently existing regulatory framework at EU level. Current laws only regulate bilateral consumer-trader relations. Platforms on the other hand represent triangular-based business models that require the customer and supplier not only to make an agreement between each other, but also that they each conclude an agreement with a platform operator. The result is that in many situations customers that conclude contracts through online platforms are left without effective consumer protection. These platforms are vastly different and any regulation will have to provide for different measures depending on whether a platform is merely a 'facilitator' or is actually the supplier, or presents itself as such.

 

Aim and Expected Ouctome

The aim of the project is to develop model rules on online platforms that set out a balance between conflicting policy options, and demonstrate what potential regulation at EU or national level could look like. They define the criteria for distinguishing whether a platform operator is only a ‘facilitator’ or the actual supplier. In addition, they could specify the duties and obligations of the platform operator, making it clear under which conditions the operator may be liable for a non-performance by the supplier. Specific regard is given to the question of what are the basic requirements for transparency and fairness of online reputation systems (e.g. ratings and reviews), which are a key feature of many online platforms. The ELI Model Rules on Online Platforms could become a European frame of reference for the law of internet platforms and thereby contribute to the formulation of a value-based European approach to platforms.

Project Reporters

  • Christoph Busch
  • Gerhard Dannemann
  • Hans Schulte-Nölke
  • Aneta Wiewiorowska-Domagalska
  • Fryderyk Zoll

Other Project Team Members

  • Fabrizio Cafaggi
  • Carolin Cauffman
  • Alberto De Franceschi
  • Agnieszka Jabłonowska
  • Monika Jagielska
  • Vanessa Mak
  • Hans Micklitz
  • Jeremias Adams-Prassl
  • Teresa Rodriguez de las Heras Ballell
  • Juliette Sénéchal
  • Marie Jull Sorensen
  • Anne de Vries
  • Tina de Vries
  • Célia Zolynski

Advisory Committee Members

  • Luisa Clode
  • Bertrand Debosque
  • Judita Dolžan
  • Marta Infantino (Assessor)
  • Byung Jun Lee
  • Irene Kull
  • Damjan Možina (Assessor)
  • Kunihiro Nakata
  • Gerald Spindler
  • Jos Uitdehaag
  • Christiane Wendehorst
  • Marilies Zinner 

Members Consultative Committee

  • Paul Abbiati
  • Hans-Jürgenn Ahrens
  • Elena Bargelli (Chair)
  • Małgorzata Boszko
  • Federica Casarosa
  • Concetta Causarano
  • Kosjenka Dumančić
  • EFTA Surveillance Authority
  • Wian Erlank
  • Michèle Finck
  • Marco Giacalone
  • Patrícia Guimarães
  • Georg Gutfleisch
  • Martin  Husovec
  • Paola Iamiceli
  • Marta Infantino
  • Liliya Ivanova
  • Václav Janeček
  • Ana Keglević Steffek
  • Lilia Kisseva
  • Michael Lehmann
  • Renato Mangano
  • Felix Maultzsch
  • Sophie Moreil
  • Pascal Pichonnaz
  • Jerzy Pisulinski Pisulinski
  • Sara Rodríguez Marín 
  • Johannes Safron
  • Marta Santos Silva
  • Renate Schaub
  • Hanna Schebesta
  • Stéphanie Laulhé Shaelou 
  • Matthias Storme
  • Julia Suderow
  • Iannis Symplis
  • Yanko Xavier
  • Miguel Pestana de Vasconcelos
  • Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) Institut pour la Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Sciences Juridiques (JUR-I)